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Against the backdrop of a global order in flux, two emerging phenomena are of particular importance in the 21st century: deepening globalization and the re-emergence of the far right in Europe. A nuanced understanding of how the former contributes to the latter is necessary to fully appreciate what is at stake in European politics. Although both concepts are well-studied and feature prominently in the literature, there continues to be debate over their exact meanings, manifestations, and implications. Responding to these concerns, this paper highlights the contested nature of these phenomena, establishes their historical roots, and outlines their unique contemporary nature. This background is then used to more fully explore the relationship between them through four case studies, ultimately suggesting that globalization – especially its cultural and economic dimensions – has contributed to the growth of far-right political parties in Europe by challenging the identities of voters and creating perceived ‘winners and losers.’ Finally, it identifies areas where future research is needed and offers several salient questions that are critical to fully understanding the relationship between these phenomena.