USURJ: University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal <p><em>USURJ</em>&nbsp;is an open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal featuring original artwork and scholarly articles by University of Saskatchewan undergraduate students. <em>&nbsp;</em>All submissions are reviewed by established experts in a relevant field. The journal is supported by the Office of the VP, Research and the University Library, including the Writing Centre.</p> en-US <p>The current Publication Agreement [as of Oct, 1, 2018] for articles and research snapshots applies a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (CC-BY-NC) by default. The author(s) can choose a different CC license or retain all rights if they wish. Please see the PDF for each article to determine what licence is applied to that article. If there is no indication, assume the author retains all rights beyond those necessary for publication by USURJ. See the Publication Agreement under the Submission Preparation Checklist or Author Guidelines for more information.</p> (Ghassan Al-Yassin and Juno Bayliss) (USURJ Support) Thu, 18 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0600 OJS 60 Editorial Board and Acknowledgements <p>The Editorial Board for volume 5, issue 1 of USURJ. Advisors for USURJ. Acknowledgments to campus partners and contributors.</p> Liv Catherine Marken ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Apr 2019 15:47:00 -0600 Cover: Full Image <p>Messier 101, also known as the Pinwheel galaxy, is a face-on spiral galaxy 21 million light-years away. Its small companion, NGC 5474, is a peculiar dwarf galaxy being distorted by the gravitational influence of the Pinwheel. This is a stacked image of 30x180 second exposures using an 11" RASA telescope and colour CMOS camera on the roof of the UofS Physics Building.&nbsp; My collaborators were Brennan Rodgers (who helped with data collection and processing) and Emery Dlugan (helped with data collection). It was done "for fun," and so no supervisors were involved. However, the telescopes on the roof of the Physics Building are regularly used by students in Astronomy lab classes for research in photometry and spectroscopy.&nbsp;</p> Rina Rast, Brennan Rodgers ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 May 2019 13:58:33 -0600 Research Proposal for Assessing Information Literacy Outcomes from the University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal (USURJ) Sarah Heather Foley ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 May 2019 13:20:16 -0600 Children of Heaven <p>Ruling over western South America for nearly 100 years, the Inca Empire was one of many global cultures that practiced human sacrifice, though few other rituals of human sacrifice are as captivating as the Inca child sacrifice of capacocha. Capacocha children were chosen to be representatives of the Inca people in the afterlife. As such, they were afforded an elevated position in society before their death. Following their selection, children would undergo a year-long pilgrimage terminating at a mountain top shrine where they would be killed. As a result of the low temperature and oxygen levels present at such a high elevation, the bodies of capacocha children were protected against decomposition, creating some of the best-preserved natural mummies in the world. These mummies have been the subject of numerous bioarchaeological analyses to determine their age, sex, geographic origin, pathological conditions, diet, and cause of death. Beyond these, however, the mummies present a unique opportunity to study how the capacocha ritual process — including the sudden ascension in status — manifested itself on the children's bodies. This paper aims to review the bioarchaeological data garnered from the mummies in order to reconstruct the experience of a child chosen for capacocha. Results suggest higher variability between children selected for capacocha than was originally outlined by Spanish chroniclers.</p> Olenka Kawchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 18 Apr 2019 12:37:20 -0600 Let’s Talk About Sex: A Three-Way Comparison of Government-Sanctioned Prostitution <p>Sweden, Canada, and the State of Nevada (USA) have significantly different policies surrounding prostitution. Sweden’s attempt to criminalize prostitution influenced countries around the world, including Canada, while Nevada took the opposite approach by legalizing brothels. This paper explores and compares the policies of these three countries, with the hope of conceptualizing a more inclusive policy that incorporates the voices of those who work within the sex industry.</p> Kayla Arisman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 18 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0600 “Showcase” vs. “Selective” Undergraduate Research Journals <p>As Western post-secondary institutions strive to adequately prepare undergraduate students for an ever-changing world, increased interest and investment has been directed towards the undergraduate learning experience. Listed as a high-impact practice (Kuh 10), undergraduate research, in particular, has been increasingly implemented and expanded in a number of institutions over the past several decades, as shown by the growth of the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR n. pag.). With the rise of undergraduate research culture, the undergraduate research journal (URJ) has emerged. URJs run within a university provide students with the opportunity to enhance their education through exposure to scholarly publishing, develop their research and communication skills, view themselves as content creators, produce higher quality work, and improve their graduate school applications or resumes by building essential skills for the changing job market. Despite the variability present in URJ formats, I have defined two broad categories which URJs fall into. Distinguished as “showcase” and “selective” journals, the two types are differentiated by the implementation of a peer-review process with “showcase” journals publishing papers that have not undergone peer-review and “selective” journals qualifying as scholarly publications. With the intent of providing the maximum benefit to the greatest number of students, a “showcase” journal, without the rigours of peer-review, may appear to be the best fit for achieving this goal as it has the potential to see more student papers published. However, the “selective” showcase journal provides the most cumulative benefits for the student, the institution, and the wider academic community. This is due to experiencing the submission process, which provides students with feedback from reviewers; the prestige of publishing in or housing a high-quality journal; and, growing a discipline’s body of knowledge. While providing any type of publishing platform for undergraduate student work will benefit students, institutions may wish to consider the additional worth of “selective” journals when developing an undergraduate research journal program.</p> Linda Marie Huard ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 16 May 2019 16:00:46 -0600 The Desert in Words <p>This paper textually investigates the alphabetical Apophthegmata Patrum, a text written in the late 5th or early 6th century CE that claims to record the sayings of the Egyptian Desert Fathers. The purpose of this investigation is to better understand the nature of Christian ascetic authority at this time as it moved from an oral to a written tradition. As this text bases its presentation of authority on sayings, or ‘words’, this paper will begin by focusing on a corpus of sayings which reveal how this text understands the power of ‘words.’ This text understands itself as enacting authority via words with the intention of transforming its readers. Once this paper has demonstrated this understanding, it will continue to outline a new understanding of the text’s contradictions: that ‘words’ must be prescribed based on an individual and their situation, thus rendering contradictions non-problematic. Therefore, self-analysis and self-prescription of ‘words’ became necessary to ascetics as ‘words’ became written and not performed by the Fathers themselves. This aspect of written ascetic authority also exists within the later systematic Apophthegmata Patrum and other ascetic writings, with differences occurring because of their perceived audiences.</p> Jackson Davis Hase ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 12 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Neurodevelopmental Changes in Offspring Prenatally Exposed to Opioids in Human Children and Rodent Models: A Review <p>The number of infants born to opioid-dependent pregnant women in North America is a growing problem. Studies that focus on the long-term effects of neurodevelopmental changes of prenatal opioid exposure in human infants are however limited. The use of rodent models to evaluate these changes may provide some insight. This review focuses on studies of rodent models exposed to opioids such as morphine, heroin, oxycodone, buprenorphine, methadone, and l-α-acetylmethadol <em>in utero</em>and briefly discusses the neural and behavioural effects in human children. Most of the rodent studies reported the following neural effects: increases in caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, altered NMDA activity, and decreases in BDNF expression in the offspring prenatally exposed to opioids. In addition, they showed decreases in synaptic plasticity, LTP, LTD, dendritic length, and dendritic branch number. The exposed rodent offspring were more inclined to perform poorly in the behavioural tests. Likewise, some of the human studies reported a significant difference between the exposed group and the control; however, other studies reported insignificant or no significant differences after correcting for covariates. Most of the studies suggest an impairment in learning and memory in the rodent offspring and deficits in behaviour and cognition in human children; however, this was not always the case. It is still not clear whether the effects of prenatal opioid exposure are due to the opioid itself being the prime factor, as various factors may also contribute to the results. Further studies of the effects of early opioid exposure on neurodevelopment in the offspring are required.</p> Eunice B Quagraine ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 12 Jul 2019 14:21:46 -0600