USURJ: University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal 2019-10-03T10:04:10-06:00 Ghassan Al-Yassin and Juno Bayliss Open Journal Systems <p><em>USURJ</em>&nbsp;is an open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal featuring original artwork and scholarly articles by University of Saskatchewan undergraduate students. <em>&nbsp;</em>All submissions are reviewed by established experts in a relevant field. The journal is supported by the Office of the VP, Research and the University Library, including the Writing Centre.</p> Editorial Board and Acknowledgements 2019-07-12T08:06:27-06:00 Liv Catherine Marken <p>The Editorial Board for volume 5, issue 1 of USURJ. Advisors for USURJ. Acknowledgments to campus partners and contributors.</p> 2019-04-30T15:47:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cover: Full Image 2019-07-12T08:06:27-06:00 Rina Rast Brennan Rodgers <p>Messier 101, also known as the Pinwheel galaxy, is a face-on spiral galaxy 21 million light-years away. Its small companion, NGC 5474, is a peculiar dwarf galaxy being distorted by the gravitational influence of the Pinwheel. This is a stacked image of 30x180 second exposures using an 11" RASA telescope and colour CMOS camera on the roof of the UofS Physics Building.&nbsp; My collaborators were Brennan Rodgers (who helped with data collection and processing) and Emery Dlugan (helped with data collection). It was done "for fun," and so no supervisors were involved. However, the telescopes on the roof of the Physics Building are regularly used by students in Astronomy lab classes for research in photometry and spectroscopy.&nbsp;</p> 2019-05-01T13:58:33-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Research Proposal for Assessing Information Literacy Outcomes from the University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal (USURJ) 2019-07-12T08:06:26-06:00 Sarah Heather Foley 2019-05-15T13:20:16-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Children of Heaven 2019-07-12T08:06:28-06:00 Olenka Kawchuk <p>Ruling over western South America for nearly 100 years, the Inca Empire was one of many global cultures that practiced human sacrifice, though few other rituals of human sacrifice are as captivating as the Inca child sacrifice of capacocha. Capacocha children were chosen to be representatives of the Inca people in the afterlife. As such, they were afforded an elevated position in society before their death. Following their selection, children would undergo a year-long pilgrimage terminating at a mountain top shrine where they would be killed. As a result of the low temperature and oxygen levels present at such a high elevation, the bodies of capacocha children were protected against decomposition, creating some of the best-preserved natural mummies in the world. These mummies have been the subject of numerous bioarchaeological analyses to determine their age, sex, geographic origin, pathological conditions, diet, and cause of death. Beyond these, however, the mummies present a unique opportunity to study how the capacocha ritual process — including the sudden ascension in status — manifested itself on the children's bodies. This paper aims to review the bioarchaeological data garnered from the mummies in order to reconstruct the experience of a child chosen for capacocha. Results suggest higher variability between children selected for capacocha than was originally outlined by Spanish chroniclers.</p> 2019-04-18T12:37:20-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Let’s Talk About Sex: A Three-Way Comparison of Government-Sanctioned Prostitution 2019-07-12T08:06:28-06:00 Kayla Arisman <p>Sweden, Canada, and the State of Nevada (USA) have significantly different policies surrounding prostitution. Sweden’s attempt to criminalize prostitution influenced countries around the world, including Canada, while Nevada took the opposite approach by legalizing brothels. This paper explores and compares the policies of these three countries, with the hope of conceptualizing a more inclusive policy that incorporates the voices of those who work within the sex industry.</p> 2019-04-18T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## “Showcase” vs. “Selective” Undergraduate Research Journals 2019-07-12T08:06:26-06:00 Linda Marie Huard <p>As Western post-secondary institutions strive to adequately prepare undergraduate students for an ever-changing world, increased interest and investment has been directed towards the undergraduate learning experience. Listed as a high-impact practice (Kuh 10), undergraduate research, in particular, has been increasingly implemented and expanded in a number of institutions over the past several decades, as shown by the growth of the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR n. pag.). With the rise of undergraduate research culture, the undergraduate research journal (URJ) has emerged. URJs run within a university provide students with the opportunity to enhance their education through exposure to scholarly publishing, develop their research and communication skills, view themselves as content creators, produce higher quality work, and improve their graduate school applications or resumes by building essential skills for the changing job market. Despite the variability present in URJ formats, I have defined two broad categories which URJs fall into. Distinguished as “showcase” and “selective” journals, the two types are differentiated by the implementation of a peer-review process with “showcase” journals publishing papers that have not undergone peer-review and “selective” journals qualifying as scholarly publications. With the intent of providing the maximum benefit to the greatest number of students, a “showcase” journal, without the rigours of peer-review, may appear to be the best fit for achieving this goal as it has the potential to see more student papers published. However, the “selective” showcase journal provides the most cumulative benefits for the student, the institution, and the wider academic community. This is due to experiencing the submission process, which provides students with feedback from reviewers; the prestige of publishing in or housing a high-quality journal; and, growing a discipline’s body of knowledge. While providing any type of publishing platform for undergraduate student work will benefit students, institutions may wish to consider the additional worth of “selective” journals when developing an undergraduate research journal program.</p> 2019-05-16T16:00:46-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Desert in Words 2019-07-12T15:17:02-06:00 Jackson Davis Hase <p>This paper textually investigates the alphabetical Apophthegmata Patrum, a text written in the late 5th or early 6th century CE that claims to record the sayings of the Egyptian Desert Fathers. The purpose of this investigation is to better understand the nature of Christian ascetic authority at this time as it moved from an oral to a written tradition. As this text bases its presentation of authority on sayings, or ‘words’, this paper will begin by focusing on a corpus of sayings which reveal how this text understands the power of ‘words.’ This text understands itself as enacting authority via words with the intention of transforming its readers. Once this paper has demonstrated this understanding, it will continue to outline a new understanding of the text’s contradictions: that ‘words’ must be prescribed based on an individual and their situation, thus rendering contradictions non-problematic. Therefore, self-analysis and self-prescription of ‘words’ became necessary to ascetics as ‘words’ became written and not performed by the Fathers themselves. This aspect of written ascetic authority also exists within the later systematic Apophthegmata Patrum and other ascetic writings, with differences occurring because of their perceived audiences.</p> 2019-07-12T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Neurodevelopmental Changes in Offspring Prenatally Exposed to Opioids in Human Children and Rodent Models: A Review 2019-07-19T15:31:44-06:00 Eunice B Quagraine <p>The number of infants born to opioid-dependent pregnant women in North America is a growing problem. Studies that focus on the long-term effects of neurodevelopmental changes of prenatal opioid exposure in human infants are however limited. The use of rodent models to evaluate these changes may provide some insight. This review focuses on studies of rodent models exposed to opioids such as morphine, heroin, oxycodone, buprenorphine, methadone, and l-α-acetylmethadol <em>in utero</em>and briefly discusses the neural and behavioural effects in human children. Most of the rodent studies reported the following neural effects: increases in caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, altered NMDA activity, and decreases in BDNF expression in the offspring prenatally exposed to opioids. In addition, they showed decreases in synaptic plasticity, LTP, LTD, dendritic length, and dendritic branch number. The exposed rodent offspring were more inclined to perform poorly in the behavioural tests. Likewise, some of the human studies reported a significant difference between the exposed group and the control; however, other studies reported insignificant or no significant differences after correcting for covariates. Most of the studies suggest an impairment in learning and memory in the rodent offspring and deficits in behaviour and cognition in human children; however, this was not always the case. It is still not clear whether the effects of prenatal opioid exposure are due to the opioid itself being the prime factor, as various factors may also contribute to the results. Further studies of the effects of early opioid exposure on neurodevelopment in the offspring are required.</p> 2019-07-12T14:21:46-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Discourse(s) of Female Genitalia 2019-08-21T16:37:44-06:00 Jordan Wellsch <p>There is a discrepancy between “Western” engagement with female genital mutilation (FGM) and female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS). Despite a similar ambiguity regarding the outcomes of each, FGM is ultimately condemned, while FGCS is permitted. By unpacking the dominant "Western" discourse(s) of each, this paper accounts for the discrepancy; FGCS is constructed as a medically legitimated option for enhancing the utility of one's genitals and for liberating one's sexuality, while FGM is constructed as a threat to "Western" conceptions of genital utility, sexuality and agency. Such discourse(s) arguably illustrate the tendency to condemn the contextual "other" and take “our” contextual constructions largely for granted.</p> 2019-08-21T16:32:25-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Stumbling, Not Falling 2019-10-03T10:04:10-06:00 Jessica Jack <p class="4-Abstract">This case study review analyzes <em>Healthy Aging through Fall Prevention among Older Aboriginal People: From Many Voices to a Shared Vision</em>by Reading et al. (2011) through a lens of cultural competency. In addressing the topic of how fall risks affect a specific cultural group, the report highlights the cultural competency pitfalls inherent to the early stages of research. In a report summarizing a symposium held to address fall risks for older Indigenous people, the authors essentialize Indigenous people by referring to them as one cultural mass. They also do not make clear use of the information gathered in this symposium, focusing only on general cultural information rather than individual Indigenous experiences. This report highlights potential improvements in culturally safe and sensitive health care by analysis through Rose’s cultural competency continuum and Delvecchio Good &amp; Hannah’s process-oriented approach. Integrative research methods such as Knowledge Translation and Participatory Action Research are utilized by the researchers to begin addressing the limitations found in the report. The balance between these positive and negative aspects effectively highlight the obstacles inherent to culturally competency research.</p> 2019-10-03T09:11:21-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##