USURJ: University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal <p><em>USURJ</em>&nbsp;is an open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal featuring original artwork and scholarly articles by University of Saskatchewan undergraduate students. <em>&nbsp;</em>All submissions are reviewed by established experts in a relevant field. The journal is supported by the Office of the VP, Research, the College of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, and the University Library, including the Writing Centre.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal</em>’s<em>&nbsp;</em>base of operations is in the Homeland of the Métis and Treaty 6 Territory, the home of the&nbsp;<em>nēhiyawak, Anihšināpē, Dënësųłinë́, Nakoda, Dakota, and Lakota</em>&nbsp;Peoples. We pay our respects to the First Nations and Métis ancestors of this place, and to all Indigenous Peoples in the territories where our journal is read. &nbsp;</p> <p>We recognise the importance of truth and reconciliation and embrace our role as an undergraduate university research journal to strive to uphold our responsibilities to community and land in our policies, practices, and publications. &nbsp;</p> University Library, University of Saskatchewan en-US USURJ: University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal 2292-1141 <p>The current Publication Agreement [as of Oct, 1, 2018] for articles and research snapshots applies a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (CC-BY-NC) by default. The author(s) can choose a different CC license, as outlined in&nbsp;<span style="color: #222222; font-family: 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: medium;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1599846705017000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGwZTr5lE-MTC0VQUGqs9PcUAKciQ">https://creativecommons.<wbr>org/about/cclicenses/</a></span>. Please see the PDF for each article to determine what license is applied to that article. If there is no indication for articles published before September 2020, assume the author retains all rights beyond those necessary for publication by USURJ. All articles published after September 2020 will apply one of the aforementioned CC licenses. See the Publication Agreement under the Submission Preparation Checklist or Author Guidelines for more information.</p> Editorial Board and Acknowledgements Jordan Wellsch Kandice Parker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-14 2022-03-14 8 1 10.32396/usurj.v8i1.648 Pedal Past the Pumps <p>This paper analyses the substitution effects between commuter bicycling and the price of gasoline. A multiple regression analysis is conducted to determine the elasticity of demand for bicycles from gasoline as well as other relevant variables, availability of bike sharing, population density, bike paths, median income, days below zero degrees Celsius, precipitation, and the CPI for recreational vehicles (including bicycles) and public transportation. The analysis is conducted using both pooled average and random effects regression models. The modelling showed that there is indeed a substitution effect on the demand for commuter cycling due to the price of gasoline. The study also shows asymmetrical results for male and female cyclists, showing that male and female cycling habits are influenced by different variables. This analysis suggests that policy makers can influence rates of cycling by manipulating the cost of its alternatives as well as the opportunity costs of cycling itself.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lukas F.J. Conly ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 8 1 10.32396/usurj.v8i1.548 Not Racist, but... <p>The following is a mixed methods case study of ID Canada, an outspoken anti-diversity, white nationalist, grassroots Canadian “Identitarian” group. It aims to answer the question “What strategies do groups with views outside of mainstream acceptability use to appeal to the public?” To this end, I performed a thematic analysis on their published web content and attempted to integrate these insights with the group’s history and relevant sociological theory. I extracted four main themes, representing the presence of “White Supremacist Beliefs”, the cultural “Struggle for History”, an insistence on “Victimhood”, and various direct attempts at “Distancing from White Supremacy”. I explore the connections between these strategies and fascism as described by Umberto Eco (1995), as well as the performative nature of ID Canada, and its place within different conceptions of the public sphere.</p> Jordan Derkson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-08 2022-03-08 8 1 10.32396/usurj.v8i1.576 Promises Made or Promises Kept? <p>Reverberating effects of the Indian Residential School system's legacy continue to threaten Indigenous languages. In establishing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), all levels of Canadian governments and civil society received 94 ‘Calls to Action’ in coming to terms with Canada’s colonial past and rooted inequities. Some of these Calls stress the need to revive and preserve Indigenous languages. Statistics prove the existence of this decline. Government commissions and Indigenous governing bodies warn of the implications of neglecting this unique crisis facing Indigenous communities nationwide. With the introduction of the <em>Indigenous Languages Act</em> in 2016, the federal government appears ready to commit to the TRC’s recommendations on Indigenous language revitalization. However, what this research finds are that Canadian provincial and federal governments have much room for improvement. This paper assesses the details of legislation and compares inconsistencies with promises made and the results of government inaction. Therefore, contrary to Canada’s optimism, the steps it takes to revitalize Indigenous languages are inadequate and require significant rethinking to prove truly effective.</p> Matthew James Selinger ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-10 2022-04-10 8 1 10.32396/usurj.v8i1.571 The application of citizen science to an undergraduate research project on canine cognition <p style="margin: 0in; font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: 12.0pt;">Animal research provides meaningful insight into animals' skills and abilities, further enhancing our care for and understanding of them. However, performing authentic animal research in an undergraduate class is difficult because of cost and limited resources. One solution to this challenge is citizen science. Citizen science is a form of research conducted by members of the public who perform experiments and gather information for researchers, allowing for wide-scale data collection with minimal cost associations. Thus, an experiment using the citizen science approach was performed in Animal Bioscience 360 at the University of Saskatchewan to determine if there were cognitive differences in groups of dogs. Teams of two students performed cognition tests on their own dogs and tested four aspects of cognitive ability: memory, object permanence, perspective-taking, and response to human cues. Together, the class tested 42 dogs and uploaded the experimental data to Excel. Students developed hypotheses to test whether dogs differing in age, gender, breed, obedience training, or household status had different cognitive profiles. There were no significant differences in cognition except that dogs living in single-dog households yawned significantly more often in response to human yawning than multi-dog households (P ≤ 0.05). The citizen science approach provided 61 students with an authentic research experience and improved their writing and numeracy skills. Undergraduate research experience assists in practical skill development, improved academic performance, and degree completion. Citizen science enhances participants' knowledge of the research area and provides a level of transparency toward scientific research.</p> Dezirae Leger ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-16 2022-03-16 8 1 10.32396/usurj.v8i1.542 Sisters Are Doing It for Each Other <p>Shakespeare’s play,&nbsp;<em>The Taming of the Shrew,</em>&nbsp;has faced harsh criticism for its sexist portrayal of women and depictions of abuse. Yet, modern adaptations of the play continue to be produced. Gil Junger’s 1999 teen romantic comedy adaptation of&nbsp;<em>The Taming of the Shrew,&nbsp;</em>titled&nbsp;<em>10 Things I Hate About You,</em>&nbsp;appears to challenge the play’s problematic themes by developing the relationship between sisters Katherine and Bianca beyond the play’s strict, sexist notion that the ideal woman should be obedient and submissive to their husband. In doing so, the film enfranchises the sisters beyond the play’s binary characterization of women as good or bad. Instead turning them into more complex and human characters. Though the film also introduces Kat and Bianca as rebellious and obedient respectively, scenes in which the sisters discuss their romantic relationships as well as address and resolve their own conflicts allow them complex character development as both women and sisters. As such, the film subverts the play’s gender binaries by prioritizing the development of a loving relationship between sisters in favour of heterosexual romance, thus suggesting that sisterhood is a theme worth contemplation and exploration. The characterizations of Kat and Bianca in&nbsp;<em>10 Things I Hate About You</em>&nbsp;encourages its audience to reject sexist and limiting understandings of women as depicted in&nbsp;<em>The Taming of the Shrew</em>&nbsp;by illustrating the complexities of young women and idealizing the support and love found within sisterhood.</p> Victoria Herbison ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-19 2022-05-19 8 1 10.32396/usurj.v8i1.569 Winding Routes and Precarious Switchbacks <p>Silk Road developments increased interconnectivity through trade, but little is written about the resulting effect on food diversity. I used three methodologically, geographically and temporally diverse studies examining aspects of food during the Silk Road period to identify key factors affecting botanical and dietary food diversification in Central Asia during the first millennium. Archaeological and historical data from a study of Tashbulak (800-1100) revealed narrowing of genetic diversity accompanying cultivation, but also broadening of food options through trade and human interventions that created new plant varieties. A comparative study of the medieval period (500-1300) using human remains and published isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) records of urban and non-urban consumers in the Turkmenistan-Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan region showed the Silk Road fostered greater overall food diversity than occurred in the Iron Age and early first millennium (1300 BCE- 600 CE). It also showed that, although during the medieval period enhanced trade opportunities facilitated a food-diversity trend, the positive movement was eroded by urban, insular agricultural communities with reified social structures. Foodways analysis of recipe books revealed that during the Mongol period (1200-1400), multi-cultural interaction enhanced dietary diversity, whereas changing power dynamics, tradition, and sense of place countered the trend. The Silk Road was not a unilinear path toward dietary diversity, but rather, a series of winding routes beset with potentially precarious switchbacks. Travelling back along the first millennium Silk Road uncovers critical turning points that can inform global food diversity approaches in the 21st century.</p> Alana Michelle Krug-MacLeod ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 8 1 10.32396/usurj.v8i1.602 Interruption I and Interruption II <p>Medium: glass seed beads, thread, leaf. Temporary installation at the University of Saskatchewan.</p> <p>©Aurora Wolfe (2021) <a href=""></a> 4<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;year, double major Indigenous Studies &amp; Studio Art, College of Arts and Science, University of Saskatchewan</p> <p><strong>Artist’s Statement</strong></p> <p>Interruption I &amp; II explore small acts of resistance through ephemeral installation.</p> Aurora Wolfe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-21 2022-03-21 8 1 10.32396/usurj.v8i1.649 Digging Up the Past <p>Artist’s Statement: My piece, "Digging Up the Past," was designed to bring a sense of nostalgia and joy on two levels: the cinematic and the global. Referencing the original 1999 film&nbsp;<em>The Mummy,&nbsp;</em>the top sculpture of a mummy represents the common pre-Covid pastimes that we all would have experienced at one point or another, such as going to a movie. The bottom pillar/column represents the culture and diverse experiences that we have missed due to the pandemic, bringing to light our inability to travel and explore localities that differ from our own. Both of these issues are accentuated by the aging processes the column and mummy have undergone, showing the toll time has taken on all of us, especially in relation to these issues. I made this piece for ART 242. A small recording device can be switched on to let the Mummy roar using the voice from the film (as it is recorded from the 1999 movie).&nbsp;</p> Puja Rajesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 8 1 10.32396/usurj.v8i1.650