USURJ: University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal <p><em>USURJ</em>&nbsp;is an open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal featuring original artwork and scholarly articles by University of Saskatchewan undergraduate students. <em>&nbsp;</em>All submissions are reviewed by established experts in a relevant field. The journal is supported by the Office of the VP, Research, the College of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, and the University Library, including the Writing Centre.</p> <p>The&nbsp;<em>University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal</em>’s<em>&nbsp;</em>base of operations is in the Homeland of the Métis and Treaty 6 Territory, the home of the&nbsp;<em>nēhiyawak, Anihšināpē, Dënësųłinë́, Nakoda, Dakota, and Lakota</em>&nbsp;Peoples. We pay our respects to the First Nations and Métis ancestors of this place, and to all Indigenous Peoples in the territories where our journal is read. &nbsp;</p> <p>We recognise the importance of truth and reconciliation and embrace our role as an undergraduate university research journal to strive to uphold our responsibilities to community and land in our policies, practices, and publications. &nbsp;</p> University Library, University of Saskatchewan en-US USURJ: University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal 2292-1141 <p>USURJ’s current Publication Agreements apply a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (CC-BY-NC) by default. The CC BY-NC license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon work non-commercially. The author(s) can choose a different CC license, as outlined in&nbsp;<a href=";;sdata=owaMpr96RBnBbTfrL0VPueUSOgZTpq8v5rV2Ow550TI%3D&amp;reserved=0" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1599846705017000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGwZTr5lE-MTC0VQUGqs9PcUAKciQ"><strong></strong></a>. Please see the PDF for each article to determine what license is applied to that article. Author(s) can also request to reserve all copyright (All Rights Reserved). If there is no indication for articles published before September 2020, assume the author retains all rights beyond those necessary for publication by USURJ. All articles published after September 2020 will apply one of the aforementioned CC licenses. See the Publication Agreement under the Submission Preparation Checklist or Author Guidelines for more information.&nbsp;</p> Editorial Board and Acknowledgements Kandice Parker Alina Sami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.679 Evil <p>I am a First Nations artist. My father is Dene, and my mother is a second-generation Canadian from Ukraine. I have spent almost all of my life creating art and grew up with family members who were professional artists. My goal has always been to create art for my own mental health and for the enjoyment of those around me. I also try to create some of my ideas in a simple easy-to-digest way while trying to also stay simple with the materials I use. Before I came to university, I spent many years as a teenager practicing the art of graffiti, but as I grew older and my criminal record became more extensive, I struggled with my identity as a native artist and began to ask myself introspective questions that a young teenager doing graffiti would tend not to ask.&nbsp; Those questions led me to pursue a degree in fine arts and also led me to pursue my love of art through many different surfaces and mediums than my younger self could have ever thought possible</p> Alexander Sylvestre ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.677 Pandemic Perspective <p>A digital collage piece representing the diverging perceptions (negative and positive) of the state of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Ally Seifert ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.676 Micromoss <div>This piece is called "Micromoss," because it is, in fact, a microscopic view of simple moss found outside. Though not attached to any particular class, this photograph was taken during the summer months while experimenting with some micro-photography. The surprising yet beautiful world that can be found in everyday objects, even the grass and moss of leaves we pass by every day, can, on a scale not commonly seen, can be truly breathtaking and intricate.&nbsp;&nbsp;</div> Puja Rajesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.675 Reconsidering the Past <p>Those in power often use carefully constructed historical narratives to justify past injustices. Nevertheless, with the rise of postmodern literature, including historiographic metafictions, fiction authors have challenged traditional historicism while problematizing historical justifications for past injustices. Joy Kogawa uses postmodernist literary devices in her novel <em>Obasan</em>, presenting her novel as a work of historiographic metafiction. However, the political, social, and historical contexts in which Kogawa uses such devices reveal that <em>Obasan</em>’s historiographic metafictional qualities self-reflexively evoke a reconsideration of the official historical accounts that attempted to justify Japanese Canadian internment.</p> Zaid Mir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.610 Killer Decorations <p>This paper assesses the historical accuracy of Terry Jones and Terry Gilliam's film Monty Python the Holy Grail, which demonstrates how the film's satirical elements are tied to morality and the Gothic tradition. It examines John Ruskin's Victorian criticism and the marginal decorations within Gothic manuscripts and sculpture. By identifying and displaying their symbolic power as symbols of morality, as adapted in the film, this analysis offers a fresh take on why killer rabbits are found within Gothic manuscripts.</p> Andrew Wiebe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.491 Globalization and the (Re)Emergence of Europe's Far Right <p>Against the backdrop of a global order in flux, two emerging phenomena are of particular importance in the 21<sup>st</sup> century: deepening globalization and the re-emergence of the far right in Europe. A nuanced understanding of how the former contributes to the latter is necessary to fully appreciate what is at stake in European politics. Although both concepts are well-studied and feature prominently in the literature, there continues to be debate over their exact meanings, manifestations, and implications. Responding to these concerns, this paper highlights the contested nature of these phenomena, establishes their historical roots, and outlines their unique contemporary nature. This background is then used to more fully explore the relationship between them through four case studies, ultimately suggesting that globalization – especially its cultural and economic dimensions – has contributed to the growth of far-right political parties in Europe by challenging the identities of voters and creating perceived ‘winners and losers.’ Finally, it identifies areas where future research is needed and offers several salient questions that are critical to fully understanding the relationship between these phenomena.</p> Matt Don Reimer Dyck ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.647 The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Crime <p>Since the emergence of COVID-19, people around the world have been immobilized by mandatory lockdown restrictions and social distancing protocols. The opportunity for crime to occur changes as more people remain stuck at home. While overall crime rates have declined worldwide during COVID-19 restrictions, certain types of crimes have increased. Specifically, cybercrime, intimate partner violence, and anti-Asian hate crimes have become exacerbated consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper examines the aforementioned forms of crime during the ongoing pandemic, specifically discussing their development and prevalence. This paper informs the need to address increasing rates of cybercrime, anti-Asian hate crime, and intimate partner violence during the pandemic and thereafter. Further research is warranted on these specific crimes as COVID-19 continues to spread around the world.</p> Zakir Amer Sami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.612 Are honey bees a suitable model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in humans? <p>Last summer, I was fortunate in having the opportunity to work with the brilliant and talented individuals in the Pollinator Health Research Lab at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine under the supervision of Dr. Wood and Dr. Simko. I was exposed to many facets of science, had hands-on experience in apiculture, and met beekeepers from around the globe. I will always be thankful for the mentorship, friendships, and skills I gained over the summer, and I hope our research will serve as a basis for validating honey bees as a model organism for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).</p> Breanne Bernice Bevelander ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.668 The Relationship Between Wildfires and Respiratory Health <p>Wildfires have been increasing in length and frequency since the mid-1980s, which emit pollutant matter that can adversely impact human health, specifically exacerbating negative respiratory impacts (Lipner et al., 2019). Although many studies examine the respiratory impacts of worsened wildfire conditions, a limited number take place outside of the western United States, occur over prolonged periods, and look at how air quality is changing due to warming climates. The objective of this study is to investigate how air quality health index (AQHI) values have changed over a period of two decades (January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2021) in the Great Plains Air Zone (GPAZ) in southern Saskatchewan and the potential respiratory implications of AQHI changes. The study uses a mixed methods approach: time series analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis to analyze AQHI and a literature review to study respiratory implications of AQHI increases. We found a significant increase in AQHI over time of 19.3% (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.0001, <em>n</em> = 7308) and three main outcomes for respiratory data: (1) individuals with respiratory conditions have increased susceptibility to worsened air conditions, (2) elevated AQHI values cause increases in healthcare admittances for respiratory conditions such as asthma and COPD, and (3) women and individuals in the age ranges of 15-65 are particularly susceptible to respiratory outcomes from wildfire smoke. The study provides areas for future research, including the implementation of apps to track respiratory outcomes, the impact of other risk factors on respiratory health, and the effects of AQHI on Indigenous populations.</p> Krishna Alexandria Kolen Krystopher J Chutko, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-13 2023-12-13 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.654 The Selective Pressures That Led to the Rarity of Venomous Mammals <p>Mammals are not typically thought of as being venomous, yet venom is present in four orders: Monotremata (platypuses and echidnas), Eulipotyphla (shrews and solenodons), Chiroptera (bats), and Primates. Of the monotremes, only the male platypus is venomous, and unlike the other three orders, it envenomates through a hindlimb spur. The other three orders have venoms carried in salivary or other oral secretions and deliver them by biting or licking. Some Eulipotyphlans possess grooved teeth for venom delivery, which helps venom evolution be traced across their phylogeny. In Chiroptera, venom is restricted to the vampire bats for use in feeding, and in primates only certain lorises are venomous. Given the distant relationships in species between the orders, and the variety of environments each lives in, it is highly unlikely venom evolved only once. Instead, it is far more likely that venom evolved multiple times, with each order having its own specific reason. The emergence and retention of venom in mammals have a variety of hypotheses which are discussed and debated below. A particularly interesting case is that of the slow loris, which may have evolved venom for Müllerian mimicry with the spectacled cobra, a venomous species of snake.</p> Samuel Papp ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-04-01 2023-04-01 8 2 10.32396/usurj.v8i2.655